Life cycle analysis of an OSRAM halogen lamp



Average lifetime  2 000 h
Lumen  630
Watt  42

Halogen lamps operate similarly to incandescent lamps and have a comparable design. Like incandescent lamps, they provide a color rendering index of 100 percent. However, the filler gas of halogen bulbs contains small quantities of halogens such as bromine, chlorine and iodine. These almost entirely prevent bulb blackening from the deterioration of the filament and prolong lifetime. This way, there is no associated loss in luminous flux during lamp life. In addition, by using quartz instead of glass, the bulbs of halogen lamps can be made much smaller and the pressure of the filler gas can be increased, which enables the lamp life to be extended.

Material Composition
Glass 20.81 g 85.96 %
Ferrous metal 0.37 g 1.53 %
Aluminum 1.17 g 4.83 %
Non-ferrous metal (exc. Al) 0.37 g 1.53 %
Cement 1.45 g 5.99 %
Plastic - -
Electronic components - -
Resin compound - -
Mercury - -
Other (incl. special chem.) 0.04 g 0.17 %
Total 24.21 g 100 %


Environmental impact of production
The following table depicts the environmental impact of the halogen lamp during production, including the Cumulated Energy Demand (CED) of this life cycle stage.

Environmental Impacts
Cumulated Energy Demand (CED) MJ 5,5
Global Warming Potential (GWP) kg CO2 eq. 0,3285
Acidification Potential (AP) kg SO2 eq. 0,0007548
Eutrophication Potential (EP) kg PO4 eq. 0,00006508
Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential (POCP) kg NOx eq. 0,0004814
Particulate Matter (PM) kg PM10 eq. 0,0001971


Cumulated Energy Demand of the use phase
The Cumulated (primary) Energy Demand during the use phase is calculated from the wattage of the lamp, its average lifetime and the energy mix.

Calculation of the CED
1 Electrical power consumption during life 42 WEl • 2000 h = 84 000 Wh = 84 kWhEl
2 Energy mix
(includes average power plant efficiency)
1 kWhEl requires 3.29 kWhPrim
3 Cumulated Energy Demand 84 kWhEl • 3.29 = 276.4 kWhPrim = 994.9 MJ


CED and Global Warming Potential of the use and manufacturing phase
The graphs below outline the Cumulated Energy Demand and the Global Warming Potential of the use phase in comparison to the manufacturing phase. For the calculation of the CO2 emissions resulting from the use phase, an electricity mix of 0.55 kg CO2 per kWhEl was taken as a basis. Of course electricity production during use is also responsible for other environmental impact categories, but this depends very much on where the lamp is used. For this reason we have only depicted the CO2 impact, which may also vary depending on the location of use.

Equally depending on the electricity mix, the usage of a halogen lamp may be responsible for mercury emissions, although less than incandescent lamps. This is due to the comparatively high ratio of coal power plants in some electricity mixes, which emit mercury by burning lignite or hard coal to produce electricity.

Applicability of this life cycle analysis

The main purpose of this life cycle analysis is to provide a basis for comparing different types of household lamps. As halogen lamps are still very popular with customers concerned with perceived drawbacks of more efficient light sources, they are an important part of our portfolio geared to customer choice. The LCA of this lamp can be seen as a representation of all halogen lamps. Due to the very similar material composition, the Cumulated Energy Demand of production is approximately the same for all types. For the use phase, it is merely necessary to recalculate the Cumulated Energy Demand based on the wattage of the lamps, according to the three steps illustrated in the table above.

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